LANSING, Mich. (AP) — Governor Gretchen Whitmer sued Thursday to protect abortion rights, asking a Michigan court to recognize a right to abortion under the state constitution and to overturn a 176-year-old ban in the state that may take effect if the landmark Roe v. Wade ruling is vacated.

The Democratic governor’s preemptive lawsuit, which was filed in Oakland County against prosecutors in 13 counties with an abortion clinic, came as the U.S. Supreme Court’s conservative majority considers allowing states to ban abortion much earlier in pregnancy and potentially overturning the right.

The governor, who is up for reelection this year, was expected to request that the Michigan Supreme Court quickly take the case rather than let it wind through lower trial and appellate courts.

“It was important for us to take action now, to ensure that women and providers across the state of Michigan know whether abortions will still be available in the state because it impacts their lives and our health care providers’ practices. It’s crucial that we take this action now to secure and ensure that the Michigan Constitution protects this right that we have had available for 49 years,” Whitmer told The Associated Press, saying nearly 2.2 million women may lose access to a safe, legal medical procedure.

Michigan is among eight states with an unenforced abortion ban that was enacted before the 1973 Roe decision legalized abortion nationwide. The 1931 law, which dates to an 1846 ban, makes it a felony to use an instrument or administer any substance with the intent “to procure the miscarriage” of a woman unless necessary to preserve her life.

Whitmer wants the Michigan Supreme Court to declare a state constitutional right to abortion and to strike down the 1931 law, which could go back into effect is Roe is overturned or weakened. The lawsuit argues that the law is invalid under the due process and equal protection clauses of the state constitution.

Michigan could soon be left with a near-total ban without even exceptions for rape and incest — “one of the most extreme laws in the country,” Whitmer said. Her call to repeal the law has gone nowhere in the Republican-controlled Legislature.

The state high court has four Democratic and three Republican justices.

Whitmer will ask that the court intervenes in part to avoid legal uncertainty when the federal high court issues its ruling on Mississippi’s ban on abortions after 15 weeks of pregnancy.

The complaint says that while the Michigan Supreme Court in 1973 ruled that Roe limited the effect of the state ban, the right to abortion has been undermined over 50 years of litigation in federal courts. The state’s high court has not said whether the state constitution protects the right. The Michigan Court of Appeals, in 1997, ruled there is no state constitutional right to abortion — a reason the Michigan Supreme Court should step in immediately, according to her office.

The lawsuit points to “substantial ambiguity” about what the state ban prohibits.

Abortion rights advocates have launched a ballot drive to enshrine the right to abortion in the state constitution but need about 425,000 voter signatures to put the initiative on the November ballot.

In addition to the governor’s suit, Planned Parenthood of Michigan and a Michigan abortion provider Dr. Sarah Wallett filed a lawsuit to block the 1931 abortion ban.

The suit seeks to prevent Attorney General Dana Nessel and county prosecutors across the state from enforcing the ban on abortions if Roe v. Wade is overturned by the US Supreme Court.

We believe that the right to access abortion care is already protected in the Michigan Constitution, and we’re asking the court to affirm that through this suit. Michiganders have the right to privacy, bodily integrity, and civil rights protections, all of which encompass accessing basic reproductive health care, including abortion. There is no room for any gray area on the fundamental right to bodily integrity and the ability for every person to decide their futures for themselves.”

Deborah LaBelle, lead counsel for Planned Parenthood of Michigan

According to Planned Parenthood, 2.2 million women in the Great Lakes State could lose abortion access.

I’m an abortion provider, and the care my colleagues and I provide every day to our patients is essential to their ability to lead the lives they choose. I joined this suit because it is fundamental to my oath as a physician to do no harm – and being forced to deny abortion care and violating the basic rights of my patients would cause them immense, irreversible harm. Michiganders deserve to know that the health care they have relied on for 50 years will be there when they need it, no matter what.”

Dr. Sarah Wallett, plaintiff and chief medical officer of Planned Parenthood Michigan

Despite the requirement of prosecutors to enforce the ban, some Michigan prosecutors are pledging to protect the right to choose- including Ingham County Prosecutor Carol Siemon.

Back in October 2021, Siemon expressed her thoughts on Michigan’s 1931 anti-abortion law.

“I support reproductive justice and continue my position that if Roe v Wade is overturned, I will not prosecute under Michigan’s archaic 1931 anti-abortion law,” said Siemon.

A letter from seven Michigan prosecutors states their support of Whitmer’s lawsuit.

“Today, our Governor filed a lawsuit to guarantee the right to reproductive freedom in Michigan, and to prevent the arbitrary enforcement of those 90-year-old statutes. These statutes were held unconstitutional five decades ago and are still unconstitutional today. We support the Governor in that effort,” concluded the letter.